Phone: +351 220 145 200
What is an Emulsion?
An emulsion is a mixture between two immiscible liquids like diesel and water, one of which is in the form of small droplets (dispersed phase) within another liquid (continuous phase). During the emulsification process, the dispersed phase (water) is introduced into the continuous phase (diesel) and the resulting product can be used as fuel source.
Emulsion Combustion  
When a water-in-fuel emulsion is heated, the water is first vaporized because it is more volatile than diesel or heavy fuel. The vaporization causes micro explosions in the continuous hydrocarbon phase that help atomize the fuel.

This violent disintegration is beneficial for the mixing of fuel and air because the fuel-air interfacial layer is larger than it would be without micro explosions. This improves the combustion reaction and burning efficiency and reduces fuel consumption.

Diesel engines running on emulsions have an increase reliability compared to engines running on pure diesel, due the effect of water-in-fuel emulsions on heat flux, combustion chamber metal temperature and thermal loading. The drop in temperature in the combustion chamber, results in an increased life of metal parts and the requirement of a less complex cooling system.
Economical Benefits
  • Fuel consumption costs reduction;
  • Net savings between 5% and 25%.
Operational Benefits
  • Increase in combustion efficiency;
  • Back-end fouling and corrosion reduction;
  • Less soot;
  • Downtime reduction for maintenance.
Environmental Benefits
  • Lower emission of greenhouse gasses such as NOx, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons;
  • Acid mist reduction.
When making ultrasonic emulsification of liquids at high intensities, the sound waves that propagate into the liquid media result in alternating high-pressure (compression) and low-pressure (rarefaction) cycles, with rates depending on the frequency. During the low-pressure cycle, high-intensity ultrasonic waves create small vacuum bubbles or voids in the liquid. 

When the bubbles attain a volume at which they can no longer absorb energy, they collapse violently during a high-pressure cycle. This phenomenon is termed cavitation, during which high temperatures and pressures are reached locally. The micro explosion of the cavitation bubble also results in liquid jets of up to 280m/s velocity.

Ultrasound technology also can be used in continuous flow reactors and immediately before consumption. For this reason, there is no need for stabilization through chemical emulsifiers (surfactants).
Ultrasonic Degassing and Defoaming
Ultrasound does also help to reduce the amount of air bubbles in the emulsion mixture. As variations in the bubble content cause fluctuations in the injection timing, a degassing, deaeration and defoaming by ultrasonication improves the engine performance.

Ultrasonication Process Equipment

IncBio is the leading supplier of flow-through ultrasonic reactors, worldwide. As IncBio makes ultrasonic reactors according to clients need, there is no limit in plant size or processing capacity. Even clusters of several reactors can be used to produce large volumes of emulsified fuels.  Industrial fuel processing does not need much ultrasonic energy. The actual energy requirement can be determined using a small reactor, and results can be scaled up easily.

Costs of Ultrasonication

Ultrasonic processing costs result mainly from the investment for ultrasonic devices, utility costs and maintenance. The outstanding energy efficiency helps to reduce the utility costs.
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